- Many ancient-Greek writings, including the work of Aristotle, were introduced to Europe during the late Middle Ages by Islamic scholars.
- The Arab astronomer Al-Khwarizmi wrote several scientific books in the ninth century. Latin scholars later translated his work in the 13th century--introducing Europeans to the word "Algebra" and the place-value decimal system still in use today.
- The modern use of the Scientific Method was developed in early Muslim philosophy.
- Arab mathematician Ibn Al-Haitham advanced the science of optics in the 10th century, by solving particular problems related to the refraction of light.
- These familiar English words have their medieval origins in the language and scientific contributions of Islamic scholars: alkali, alchemy, alcohol, algorithm, almanac, zenith and zero.
- The upper-class of Europe practiced the art of Courtly Love during the later Middle Ages, which was influenced by Arabic poetry.